Tuesday, July 28, 2020

Ask A VC Boston 2016

Ask A VC Boston 2016 A venture capitalist seeks out startups with high potential and invests money from the venture capital firm they work for into those startups to make returns. As an entrepreneur, being in their good graces and learning from their insight could be the difference between life and death for ones company. I wanted to meet as many as I could and learn as much from them as I could before I started my own venture. Then on late Thursday night, my friend told me Hey Erick, tomorrow morning is Ask A VC Boston, right in the Microsoft Nerd Center. Venture capitalists from all over will be there. So, I made a mental pros and cons list: Reasons not go: The event starts at 8am. My sleep schedule has been sleeping from 6am to noon for the past month so I wasnt sure how my body would react to being woken up at 8. I had a class that grades attendance around that time that I would have to skip. Reasons to go: Over 20 VCs from all different industries were going to be gathered in one place less than a block away from MIT campus and I could ask them any question I wanted. Pros outweighed the cons. I finished my pset, slept for a few hours, woke up, rolled out of bed, splashed my face with cold water, brewed some coffee to stay awake, and headed over. The event started with some networking followed by a QA panel. Afterwards, the attendees could pitch their startups to the venture capitalists and get feedback on the spot. I didnt have my own startup yet so I just focused on getting good insight. There were so many speakers and attendees that they split the panel into two different rooms. Sumeet Shah from Brand Foundry Ventures led our panel, and he opened up by asking the VCs,  What was the worst pitch you ever recieved? The responses were hilarious, from disposable toothbrushes (arent all toothbrushes disposable?) to like an iPad but in the shape of a sphere and it goes on top of your car. Towards the end of the panel, I introduced myself and asked them what they felt were the biggest current challenges in their current industries that new startups would have to overcome. Some of the things I learned: Fintech industry is full of hard regulations. Virtual reality is exciting and novel, but theres no developed market for it. You have to create a need before people will buy the solution. Artificial intelligence is new and exciting, and were often touted as being in the age of artifical intelligence. But until you can talk to AI bots like a regular person, they wont see mass adoption as virtual assistants like most people think. Real estate requires a lot of collaboration and partnerships with established brands. Hardware startups face limited economies of scales. if you ship out 2000 products, you will only make 2000 x the price of your product. and you have to cover your costs. This is opposed to a software startup that develops one product which many people can access. Afterwards, we listened to some of the pitches from the audience, followed by more networking afterwards. I didnt stick around too long for the networking afterwards because I had to get to another class, but I did learn a lot. Until this point I imagined VCs as intimidating faceless groups that could spell doom for your company if they didnt want to give you money. But that day, after talking to many of them, I realized how theyre really people who want the same thing as the entrepreneurs to see good companies flourish (and make money). As the old adage in the VC world goes, Ask for money and you get advice. Ask for advice and you get money. Here’s the guest list of the VC’s that were  invited. Not all of them were able to make it but I did get to talk to the ones that were there and learn from them. Chris Quintero from  Bolt, a venture capital firm designed for hardware startups. Two out of three of the founders got their Masters at MIT. Sumeet Shah from Brand Foundry Ventures, an early stage venture capital firm focused on emerging, innovative consumer focused brands. Jason Shuman from Corigin Ventures, which focuses on the future of consumer behavior and daily living. Evan Kornack from Data Point Capital, focused on innovative internet companies. Shayne Veramallay from DLA Piper, a global law firm with 4,200 lawyers in the Americas, Asia Pacific, Europe and the Middle East to help companies with their legal needs around the world. Jay Farber from F-Prime Capital, a global venture capital firm investing in healthcare and technology. Michael Greeley from Flare Capital Partners, a healthcare technology venture capital firm. Juan Luis Leung Li from  General Catalyst, which focusing on companies that show high growth potential. These guys invested in companies like Airbnb, Snapchat, Stripe, and KAYAK. Chris Protasewich from Highland Capital Partners, which has raised over $3 billion in committed capital and invested in more than 225 companies, resulting in category-defining businesses across consumer and enterprise technology John Murphy from Hyperplane VC, which focuses on machine learning and data companies. Eric Girouard from LAUNCH, for next generation commerce companies. Ed Coady from Launch Capital, with a core focus in technology, healthcare, medical, and consumer businesses. Arsham Memarzadeh from OpenView Venture Partners, focusing mainly on B2B software companies. Matt Hayes from Point Judith Capital, which  focuses on investments in software and technology enabled services. Joseph Coyne from Samsung Strategic Investments, Samsungs venture capital arm that focuses on software and services. Jay Thakrar from SeedInvest, an equity crowdfunding platform that connects investors with startups. Paul Flanagan from Sigma Prime Ventures, which invests in early stage technology companies solving hard business problems with SaaS, Evelyn Buchatskiy from  Techstars,  a startup accelerator that provides mentorship-driven seed-stage investment services for technology-oriented companies Steve Agular from Zaffre Investments, which invests in products and services that focus on changing healthcare.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Analysis Of Sherman s The Pretty True Diary Of A Part...

Imagine yourself with a disease in your head that causes people to make fun of you because you have a big head. Also, picture yourself living in a poor neighborhood where people only think about drinking alcohol and students cannot go beyond high school. Sherman Alexis, a writer from Wellpinit, Washington, wrote a book based on his own life, named The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian. In this book, he writes about a child named Arnold who was born with many medical problems. Arnold hopes to have a better future by becoming a cartoonist, so he can help his family. Many people from Wellpinit including Rowdy, his best friend, call Junior a traitor because he moved from his old school to have a better future. As a result of this, Arnold faces a severe form of discrimination at Reardan High School because he was the only Indian person who was studying there. Alexie as Arnold is an interesting character because it teaches us about dealing with challenges and helps to improve a p erson’s life. Alexie suggests that many people face serious challenges such as lack of education opportunities, alcoholism, the struggle of acceptance, and that the best way to overcome some of them are hope, forgiveness, and earning the trust of friends. Lack of education opportunities was one of the first challenges that Arnold and people from Wellpinit faced at the reservation. The education at Wellpinit was so poor referring to school supplies because people from the reservation did not haveShow MoreRelatedLiterary Criticism : The Free Encyclopedia 7351 Words   |  30 Pagesnovel is sometimes used interchangeably with Bildungsroman, but its use is usually wider and less technical. The birth of the Bildungsroman is normally dated to the publication of Wilhelm Meister s Apprenticeship by Johann Wolfgang Goethe in 1795–96,[8] or, sometimes, to Christoph Martin Wieland s Geschichte des Agathon of 1767.[9] Although the Bildungsroman arose in Germany, it has had extensive influence first in Europe and later throughout the world. Thomas Carlyle translated Goethe’s novelRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your requ est to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturersRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words   |  604 Pagesmost of the fastest-growing occupations percentagewise are related to information technology or health care. The increase in the technology jobs is due to the rapid increase in the use of information technology, such as databases, system design and analysis, and desktop publishing. The health care jobs are growing as a result of the aging of the U.S. population and workforce, a factor discussed later. Chapter 1 Changing Nature of Human Resource Management 5 FIGURE 1—1 The 10 Occupations with

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Importance Of Operations And Supply Chain Management

Importance of Operations Organizations’ have matured over the years; they have learned and adapted to become more strategic in every aspect of their business. One way organizations’ have done this is by understanding the importance of operations and supply chain management. The author will explain how operations and supply chain management evolved to what it is today, how this is important to the company’s strategy, and define the dimensions of the quality. Evolution Everything adapts and changes as it matures. This is how things advance to the next stage of evolution. Operations and supply chain management is not exception to this rule, it too advanced. In the early years this term was never thought of, companies focused on logistics research and was concerned on how to improve material handling. By the 1960’s it was all about merging warehouse, transportation and material handling in to one label called Physical Distribution. (Robinson, 2015) Technology increased its evolution and by the 1970’s-1980’s computers optimized the system for companies to create programs to help with planning, storage and inventory controls. It was during this time that organizational leaders saw the importance of operations and supply chain management had on the company’s bottom line. To improve available data collected and accuracy ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system was implemented in the 1990’s. Technology made the biggest impact to operations and supply chain managementShow MoreRelatedBus 430 Assignment 2: Inventory Management1369 Words   |  6 PagesBUS 430 Assignment 2: Inventory Management http://homeworkfy.com/downloads/bus-430-assignment-2-inventory-management/ BUS 430 Assignment 2: Inventory Management Assignment 2: Inventory Management Due Week 8 and worth 300 points Research two (2) manufacturing or two (2) service companies that manage inventory and complete this assignment. Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you: 1. Determine the types of inventories these companies currently manage and describe their essentialRead MoreSupply Chains and Inventory Management Essay1155 Words   |  5 PagesSupply Chain and Inventory Management December 6, 2008 Supply Chain and Inventory Management With the increased globalization, competition and complexity in global supply chains, more companies have realized that supply chain management is critical to the optimal organizations overall operation. It is no longer just the responsibility of the warehouse manager and logistics director (Pundir, 2008 and Wharton). In the past, many organizations didn’t manage their supply chains they left thatRead MoreLogistics Management And Supply Chain Management1171 Words   |  5 PagesLogistics and Supply Chain Management Topic: Do the terms, ‘logistics management’ and ‘supply chain management’ have the same meaning in operations and why logistics management might be of strategic importance to a manufacturing or service organisation. During last two decades, the importance of logistics has been noticed around the world. In global markets, the effects and further developments of logistics and supply chain management for corporate success has increased significantly that resultRead MoreMaterials Management Proposal1445 Words   |  6 PagesMaterials Management Proposal Laura Dean 2/7/2011 Materials Management Proposal Materials and operations management play a crucial role in the success of any organization. Of particular importance to the materials and operations divisions is management’s complete understanding of the hospitals functions as a whole entity. After reading this paper, one will understand the importance of materials management and operations management as well as how both departments must work together to ensureRead MoreStrategic Vision And Operations Planning1210 Words   |  5 Pagessuccessful supply chain management. However as 2016, Walmart closed 269 stores, this means that not all the stores are successful and there is a problem that is affecting its operations planning. Walmart by 32nd St. has operation planning problems during winter time when the population increases in the area. This report was written to understand the importance of developing a strategic vision and operations planning in order to help the store current seasonal problems. I find out that Supp ly Chain ManagementRead MoreSupply Chain Management And Healthcare Industry1745 Words   |  7 PagesSupply Chain Management –For Healthcare Industry Introduction: Economic downturn in Healthcare sector has given renewed importance to supply chain management in healthcare industry. Supply chain management has great effects on hospital organizations. On papers Supply chain accounts for 30 to 40% in healthcare industry but that is only if we consider just the cost of goods under the supply chain , instead if we look at factors like cost of inventory , cost of procuring and other costs associatedRead MoreLogistics and Supply Chain Management1168 Words   |  5 PagesTopic: Do the terms, ‘logistics management’ and ‘supply chain management’ have the same meaning in operations and why logistics management might be of strategic importance to a manufacturing or service organisation. During last two decades, the importance of logistics has been noticed around the world. In global markets, the effects and further developments of logistics and supply chain management for corporate success has increased significantly that result in a large amount of companies haveRead MoreDemand Forecasting And Supply Chain1628 Words   |  7 Pagesglobal logistics and supply chain. In general, logistics and supply chain are the key to maintain the normal operation of the business. However, globalization has changed the way the business operates, it gives companies potential threats but it also provides valuable chances. In this regard, it is necessary to manage supply chain. Demand forecasting and estimation provide significant information about the market and order, and clearly identify the potential problems in supply chain (Skiver 2015). ThisRead MoreEssay on Protecting The Supply Chain1004 Words   |  5 Pagescompany’s supply chain, the more vulnerable the company becomes. When the company’s suppliers spread further and further away from the company, the company becomes even more vulnerable to political and currency risk, cyber attacks, missed inventory goals, and failed communication with the supply chain. For a company to overcome those potential vulnerabilities, a company must build safeguards into their operations. Those safeguards include a strong corporate backing in supply chain management, solidRead MoreCanadian Tire Auto Services Main Supply Chain Strategies Essay1678 Words   |  7 PagesCanadian Tire Auto Services’ main supply chain strategies. Canadian Tire provides many automotive services for their clients with many locations across the countries. Our goal for this project will also be to look into Canadian Tire’s logistics operations, their process of sup plier selection, and evaluation. We will also look to study their use of the latest IS/IT innovations. We will then conclude our project by realizing the importance of supply chain management integration, as well as, the challenges

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Brain And Behavior Free Essays

I believe that human emotion is determined by the â€Å"hard wiring† of the brain. One good example is the criminal intent of particular individuals. It is actually interesting to know that anthropological research data shows that violence is an inherent conduct among the primate species (Walker, 2001). We will write a custom essay sample on Brain And Behavior or any similar topic only for you Order Now In society, criminal violence is a common occurrence and legislators have suggested that the behavior of criminals be analyzed in order to identify any psychological patterns that are consistent among these particular types of individuals. In the past few decades, neurobiologists have proposed that an individual’s condition, which encompasses empathy, morality and free will, is holistically influenced by the frequency of stimulation and assembly of the neurons of an individual. Such notion is contradictory to the concept of Cartesian dualism, which states that the brain and the mind are two independent entities that coordinate with each other. To date, the accumulation of research reports from the field of neuroscience is gradually affecting the concepts and effectivity of the justice system because of the shifting in the concept of human behavior and response to different stimuli. Neuroscience has influenced our current understanding of the multiple factors that govern violent behavior among criminals. The 19th century classic report of Phineas Gage regarding the anti-social behavior that emerged after massive damage of the prefrontal cortex of his brain from a railroad accident is now considered as the birth of the field of forensic neurology (Harlow, 1848). Today, computerized imaging of his fractured skull has shown that the autonomic and social nerve systems are the specific damages that were affected, thus resulting in a totally different individual. Such observation, together with research results gathered from war veterans, has led to the conclusion that violent criminal behavior is caused by injuries to the frontal lobe of the brain. It has then been proposed that injury to the prefrontal cortex of the brain causes a condition that has been coined as acquired sociopathy or pseudopsychopath (Blair and Cipolotti, 2000). It is interesting to know that there is an 11% reduction in the size of the grey matter of the prefrontal cortex among patients diagnosed with anti-social personality disorder (APD) (Raine et al. , 2000). A related observation has also been observed between intelligence and alterations in the grey matter of the prefrontal cortex. The temporal lobe of the brain has also been determined to influence an individual’s emotional response and aggression, wherein lesions in the amygdale of the temporal lobe result in an individual’s failure to recognize fear and sadness among the faces of other people (van Elst et al. , 2001). The connection between the decreased expression of the monoamine oxidase A enzyme and reactive violence has already been established (Caspi et al. , 2002). Monoamine oxidase A is responsible for the catabolism of monoamines such as serotonin (5-HT). The working hypothesis currently accepted is that the prefrontal-amygdala connection is altered, resulting in a dysfunctional aggressive and violent behavior, resulting in criminality in particular individuals. The self-control theory as proposed by Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) couples an argument regarding the driving force behind criminality and the features of a criminal act. Gottfredson and Hirschi contend that crime is similar to other out of control and unlawful actions such as alcoholism and smoking because it generates in an individual a temporary yet immediate feeling of gratification. This kind of action is created by a condition that is characterized by low self-control. The authors claim that the condition of having poor self-control is an innate condition that is set in place during the early childhood at around 7 or 8 years of age. In relation to the mechanism behind criminality, the authors explain that crime is a straightforward action to results in gratification in an individual. Such perception of crime is associated with a number of implications to the general theory of crime. Firstly, the general theory of crime presents that crime is an uncomplicated action that does not need any strategic preparation or intricate knowledge. Secondly, the general theory of crime is related to a number of elements that are included in the theory of routine activities because just like other uncontrolled acts, crimes are not planned and it is easy for individuals with low self-esteem to be easily motivated to commit such acts. In addition, criminality is strongly influenced by external factors such as the scarcity of easy targets as well as the presence of associates that are capable of helping or even performing a criminal act. The theory of crime by Gottfredson and Hirschi regarding the early age of 7 or 8 also entails that the longitudinal analysis of crime is not necessary and that age-correlated theories of crime are confusing. The general theory of crime of Gottfredson and Hirschi also considers the fundamental argument regarding age and the unlawful act. It is actually different from what is presented at general courses in criminology regarding the analysis of age-crime correlations and social factors that are related to crime. A distinction of the general theory of crime of Gottfredson and Hirschi is that the age-crime linkage is very different through time, location and culture that the age-crime correlation is irrelevant of any social explanation. Their general theory of crime also describes that criminals continue to perform unlawful acts of crime even during marriage and eventually end up as unmarried criminals. The same thing goes with offenders who are currently employed—these individuals generally continue on as offenders and the only difference after some time is that they lose their jobs. The general theory of crime of Gottfredson and Hirschi thus presents an argument against the connection of crime with marriage and employment thus showing that a criminal is incompetent in maintaining a relationship in a marriage or a commitment to work because he is commonly known as person of very low command of his control. Their presentation of the force behind criminality is thus focused on self-control and the authors point out that most investigations regarding criminality do not include this concept. References Blair RJ and Cipolotti L (2000): Impaired social response reversal. A case of ‘acquired sociopathy’. Brain 123:1122–1141. Caspi A, McClay J, Moffi tt TE, Mill J and Martin J (2002): Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297:851–854. Gottfredson MR and Hirschi T (1990): A General Theory of Crime. In: Jacoby JE (ed. ): Classics of criminology, 3rd ed. Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc. Harlow J (1848): Passage of an iron bar through the head. Boston Med Surg J 13:389–393. Raine A, Lencz T, Bihrle S, LaCasse L and Colletti P (2000) Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:119–127. van Elst LT, Trimble MR, Ebert D, van Elst LT (2001) Dual brain pathology in patients with affective aggressive episodes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:1187–1188. Walker PL (2001): A bioarchaeological perspective on the history of violence. Annu Rev Anthropol 30: 573–596. How to cite Brain And Behavior, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The Grand Inquisitor by Fyodor Dostoevsky

Fyodor Dostoevsky and Constance Garnett are two prominent authors who narrate a great deal of ideas in their work The Grand Inquisitor. Like many authors of their time, the authors explore ideological and religious ideas. Dostoevsky and Garnet belong to the age of Dante, who in his work tried to illuminate and express ideologies that shaped knowledge about God, heaven and hell.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on The Grand Inquisitor by Fyodor Dostoevsky specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through literal works and art, the authors who belonged to Dante’s age tried to bring to light matters of heaven. Dostoevsky and Garnett’s poem tries to explain the end of times and authority of the cardinals in the Roman church. The authors try to solve the mystery that no man or Christ himself knows. The authors try to illuminate the principle of faith. According to the poem, a man lived at a time of faith. The time was marred with various miracles performed by saints. The significance of miracles in those days was critical, especially when man failed in faith. The authors are very categorical that miracles were necessary, but also offered an opportunity for the devil to devour man using false miracles. From such revelations, the authors seek to educate man the importance using prayers to hold fast in faith. The authors demystify the grand inquisitor as a symbol of a savior. They depict the grand inquisitor as the one who bears the cross. The authors use the character of the grand inquisitor to depict a savior of mankind. The savior is depicted as one who is weary, torn and who comes to bless. There are examples in the poem, where the authors depict the grand inquisitor as one who heals the suffering and brings life to mourners. The representation of the grand inquisitor as a cardinal is rather intriguing. The power bestowed upon the grand inquisitor by the authors brings the mysteries of the roman church into limelight. Perhaps, the authors want the reader to understand the authority bestowed upon the cardinal. The authors liken the cardinal powers to that of Christ. The grand inquisitor in his own wisdom tries to make man understand the concept of happiness. Interestingly, the grand inquisitor is categorical that man is a rebellious creation and so may not understand his own quest for happiness.Advertising Looking for critical writing on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The nature of man to go against warnings is best analyzed by the grand inquisitor. The analysis of the grand inquisitor is an example of the very lessons taught in Christian religion. The grand inquisitor is categorical that temptations of the dread spirits of destruction show a lack of admonitions and warning in man. Ivan and Alyosha are two brothers and characters in the poem grand inquisitor. The two brothers are on a quest of un derstanding religion and wisdom from the grand inquisitor. The two are disturbed by the words of the grand inquisitor. The two agree and disagree on some issues alleged by the grand inquisitor. This exhibits the fate of the Roman church in Russia, where it has challenges. The authority exhibited by the Roman church in regard to knowledge is sometimes suspicious. This is the position that many people seem to understand. Jesuits are a section of the Roman church most elite group. Perhaps, the grand inquisitor is one of the Jesuits as evidenced from his wisdom and knowledge. People who pay no allegiance to any religion often rubbish such allegations. This critical writing on The Grand Inquisitor by Fyodor Dostoevsky was written and submitted by user Shane Winters to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Criminal Careers

Criminal Careers Free Online Research Papers The Compact Oxford English Dictionary the study of crime is defined as â€Å"an offense against an individual or the state which is punishable by law; such actions collectively; informal something shameful or deplorable†. Norms come in different forms; potentially criminal acts can be judged against formal moral systems, such as religious beliefs. Under certain circumstances some legally-defined crimes might not be unacceptable when judged against the norms, codes and conventions of socially-acceptable behavior. In other terms a crime is an act or behavior that violates or breaches the rule of political; moral or criminal laws and is liable for punishment and public prosecution. Increasing rate of unemployment is a possible major problem of increasing crime rate. No criminal is by birth a criminal but it is the circumstances which make him do it. High ambitions are also the one source for crime. A person who has high ambitions like if they want to enjoy all the comforts of life or want to achieve the high status in their life, they would want to complete them at any cost and any unfair means to fulfill their wish. To make their wishes come true or to enjoy the luxuries of life they can come in the way of crime, as it seems to be an easy direction of earning what they want. When they do act upon crime their first time, then the advantages of crime compel them to commit such acts again and again. Another important influence that has made crime at ease is the advancement of technology, which is also one of the reasons for increasing of crime rate. This is because technology advancements have broadened the minds of people and they can better think of ways to better commit their crimes. Regardless, crime has multiple meanings which have been socially constructed. The most important differences in the meanings of crime occur between strictly legal definitions and those that relate crime to the breaking of other codes and conventions which can be standardized definitions. These may be formal moral codes such as religions or informal codes of socially-acceptable behavior. Many legally-defined crimes are considered to be legitimate acts in other contexts. These differences explain why many legally-defined criminal acts do not result in prosecution or imprisonment. So crime can simultaneously be normal and abnormal. A fuller explanation requires looking at the social processes involved in getting from an act to a conviction and further asking how is it that at each stage of the process, social forces construct and shape choices and decisions made by individuals? Since the early studies of Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, the concept of the Criminal Careers has been well know around this great country and the world. Most generically, the criminal career is conceived of as the sequence of delinquent and criminal acts committed by an individual as the individual ages across the lifespan from childhood through adolescence and adulthood. Participation is measure of the proportion of the population that is involved in offending behavior, while frequency is the rate of offending for those individuals who are active offenders Seriousness refers to the level of seriousness of the offenses being committed by a given individual, while career length refers to the length of time that an individual is actively offending. When aggregated across individuals, criminal careers typically exhibit a unimodal age crime curve for the population. Frequency, seriousness, and career length can vary greatly among individuals, who may range from having zero offenses across the lifespan to having one offense of a non serious nature to being chornic or career criminals with multiple, serious offenses across a broad span of their lives. In the United States, Blumstein and others (1986) suggested that population-level participation rates vary between 25 and 45 percent, depending on how participation is measured. Visher and Roth, in a meta-analysis of studies on both United States and British participation rates, found that the level of participation is about 30 percent for non-traffic related offenses. Averages are higher or lower depending on the measure of participation, which can range from the mild contact with the police to the more stringent measure of convicted of a crime. However, despite this consensus on the definition of the criminal career and the career criminal and the aggregate level age-crime curve typically found, controversy has emerged across many other areas within criminal careers research. For example, do juvenile delinquents criminals comprise a unique segment of the population or is delinquency a behavior that is a typical part of the growing-up process, from which most adults desist? Are criminal propensities relatively constant across the lifespan or do they vary with age Studying criminal careers implies the use of longitudinal panel data. In criminology, this has been difficult due to a lack of available resources, hampering the development of testable theories. As Sampson and Laub point out, criminology has been dominated by narrow sociological and psychological perspectives, coupled with a strong tradition of research using cross-sectional data on adolescents. This combination of a lack of data and limited theoretical perspectives and methodological techniques has particularly hampered the ability to understand the criminal career, which is both longitudinal and dynamic in nature. Crime is here to stay because so many jobs depend on it. From academic ivory towers to gritty mean streets, the criminal justice system is a growth industry. Whether chasing speeders or hunting down serial killers, policing is big business. The uniformed cop on the street is the tip of the human resource iceberg. To their numbers can be added detective and criminalist teams, then civilian staff ranging from technicians and auto mechanics to bean counters and file clerks. Law enforcement budgets are further swollen by equipment costs. Think only of the average police patrol car, often equipped with radios, onboard computers and cameras. Nor are those police stations built with only a few thousand dollars. Think millions, lots of millions. Not enough: multiply by levels of jurisdictionlocal, state provincial, national. In the United States we have the FBI, DEA, ATF, ICE, Border Patrol, on and on, and these are just federal. Calling it all Homeland Security doesnt reduce the bottom line. If anything, it adds another level of cost. Nor is all of this enough. How about by law enforcement? Meter maids, dog catchers, anti-smoking and anti-noise sleuths, and, of course, the army of civilian security guards in our malls and warehouse districts. For serious felonies and misdemeanors, arrest doesnt end the cost. Now come phalanxes of lawyers and judges, plus their support staff, their equipment, and their buildings. Many of these are definitely high-priced help. They securely argue that justice must be seen to be done and in nations of laws this is essential. Conviction for a crime may result in probation. More workers and infrastructure are needed to fill this niche in the supply chain. Or theres imprisonment, and here, the costs get very heavy. Local lock-ups, county provincial jails, state and federal prisons. Thousands more workers, plus operating and capital costs. Yet, build it and they will come isnt just a motivator for more fields of dreams. It also work s for prison construction. Of what use is a prison without inmates? Moreover, many prisons are now operated by private for-profit contractors. At the end of imprisonment may come parole. That means parole supervisors, their support staff, and their infrastructure. Nor can halfway houses be forgotten. Not so much topping up all of this, but actually helping to get the budgetary ball rolling and keep it rolling are social scientists, trainers, instructors, seminar leaders, etcetera. Indirect costs, to keep the system operative are the Shadowland of criminal justiceitems like insurance, health care, family relief, and victim compensation. Finally, the system is a bureaucracy; for that matter, many intertwined bureaucracies. Bureacracies do two things, for sure: they self-perpetuate and they grow. In this case, crime and criminals are the feed stock. To conclude there are many aspects to which we can factor in are thoughts of the criminal justice system. We as the people rarely take a look into what work is being done behind the scene, money being spent, all the agencies invouled in cutting downon the crime throughout the country. It’s great to explore and dig deep into history in order to see what improvement have been made also, what has came up new and what is lacking in shutting down a lot more of the crime. Reference (2010). Uniform Crime Reports. Journal of Security Letter , New York : Jan 2010 Vol. 40, Iss. 1; part 2 page 1 fhttp://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1950371201sid=4Fmt=2clientId=74379RQT=309VName=PQD Dansie Fargo, E.J. (April, 2009). Crime prevention community safety. Social Criminal Justice, pp. 124, 17. Research Papers on Criminal CareersCapital PunishmentThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationUnreasonable Searches and SeizuresEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenPETSTEL analysis of IndiaStandardized TestingAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Analysis Of A Cosmetics Advertisement

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

The Sewing Machine and the Textile Revolution

The Sewing Machine and the Textile Revolution Before the invention of the sewing machine, most sewing was done by individuals in their homes. However, many people offered services as tailors or seamstresses in small shops where wages were very low. Thomas Hoods ballad The Song of the Shirt, published in 1843, depicts the hardships of the English seamstress: With fingers weary and worn, With eyelids heavy and red, A woman sat in unwomanly rags, Plying her needle and thread. Elias Howe In Cambridge, Massachusetts, one inventor was struggling to put into metal an idea to lighten the toil of those who lived by the needle. Elias Howe was born in Massachusett in 1819. His father was an unsuccessful farmer, who also had some small mills, but seems to have succeeded in nothing he undertook. Howe led the typical life of a New England country boy, going to school in winter and working about the farm until the age of sixteen, handling tools every day. Hearing of the high wages and interesting work in Lowell, a growing town on the Merrimac River, he went there in 1835 and found employment; but two years later, he left Lowell and went to work in a machine shop in Cambridge. Elias Howe then moved to Boston, and worked in the machine shop of Ari Davis, an eccentric maker and repairer of fine machinery. This is where Elias Howe, as a young mechanic, first heard of sewing machines and began to puzzle over the problem. First Sewing Machines Before Elias Howes time, many inventors had attempted to make sewing machines and some had just fallen short of success. Thomas Saint, an Englishman, had patented one fifty years earlier. About this very time, a Frenchman named Thimonnier was working eighty sewing machines to make army uniforms, when the tailors of Paris, fearing that the bread was to be taken from them, broke into his workroom and destroyed the machines. Thimonnier tried again, but his machine never came into general use. Several patents had been issued on sewing machines in the United States, but without any practical result. An inventor named Walter Hunt had discovered the principle of the lock-stitch and had built a machine, but he abandoned his invention just as success was in sight, believing it would cause unemployment. Elias Howe probaly knew nothing of any of these inventors. There is no evidence that he had ever seen the work of another. Elias Howe Begins Inventing The idea of a mechanical sewing machine obsessed Elias Howe. However, Howe was married and had children, and his wages were only nine dollars a week. Howe found support from an old schoolmate, George Fisher, who agreed to support Howes family and furnish him with five hundred dollars for materials and tools. The attic in Fishers house in Cambridge was converted into a workroom for Howe. Howes first efforts were failures, until the idea of the lock stitch came to him. Previously all sewing machines (except Walter Hunts) had used the chain stitch, which wasted thread and easily unraveled. The two threads of the lock stitch cross, and the lines of stitches show the same on both sides. The chain stitch is a crochet or knitting stitch, while the lock stitch is a weaving stitch. Elias Howe had been working at night and was on his way home, gloomy and despondent, when this idea dawned on his mind, probably rising out of his experience in the cotton mill. The shuttle would be driven back and forth as in a loom, as he had seen it thousands of times, and passed through a loop of thread which the curved needle would throw out on the other side of the cloth. The cloth would be fastened to the machine vertically by pins. A curved arm would ply the needle with the motion of a pick-axe. A handle attached to the fly-wheel would furnish the power. Commercial Failure Elias Howe made a machine which, crude as it was, sewed more rapidly than five of the swiftest needle workers. But his machine was too expensive, it could sew only a straight seam, and it easily got out of order. The needle workers were opposed, as they have generally been, to any sort of labor-saving machinery that might cost them their jobs, and there was no clothing manufacturer willing to buy even one machine at the price Howe asked- three hundred dollars. Elias Howes 1846 Patent Elias Howes second sewing machine design was an improvement on his first. It was more compact and ran more smoothly. George Fisher took Elias Howe and his prototype to the patent office in Washington, paying all the expenses, and a patent was issued to the inventor in September 1846. The second machine also failed to find buyers. George Fisher had invested about two thousand dollars, and he could not, or would not, invest more. Elias Howe returned temporarily to his fathers farm to wait for better times. Meanwhile, Elias Howe sent one of his brothers to London with a sewing machine to see if any sales could be found there, and in due time an encouraging report came to the destitute inventor. A corsetmaker named Thomas had paid two hundred and fifty pounds for the English rights and had promised to pay a royalty of three pounds on each machine sold. Moreover, Thomas invited the inventor to London to construct a machine especially for making corsets. Elias Howe went to London and later sent for his family. But after working eight months on small wages, he was as badly off as ever, for, though he had produced the desired machine, he quarrelled with Thomas, and their relations came to an end. An acquaintance, Charles Inglis, advanced Elias Howe a little money while he worked on another model. This enabled Elias Howe to send his family home to America, and then, by selling his last model and pawning his patent rights, he raised enough money to take passage himself in the steerage in 1848, accompanied by Inglis, who came to try his fortune in the United States. Elias Howe landed in New York with a few cents in his pocket and immediately found work. But his wife was dying from the hardships she had suffered due to stark poverty. At her funeral, Elias Howe wore borrowed clothes, for his only suit was the one he wore in the shop. After his wife died, Elias Howes invention came into its own. Other sewing machines were being made and sold and those machines were using the principles covered by Elias Howes patent. Businessman George Bliss a man of means, had bought out George Fishers interest and proceeded to prosecute  the patent infringers. Meanwhile Elias Howe went on making machines. He produced 14 in New York during the 1850s and never lost an opportunity to show the merits of the invention, which was being advertised and brought to notice by the activities of some of the infringers, particularly by Isaac Singer, the best businessman of them all. Isaac Singer had joined forces with  Walter Hunt. Hunt had tried to patent the machine which he had abandoned nearly twenty years before. The suits dragged on until 1854, when the case was decisively settled in Elias Howes favor. His patent was declared basic, and all the makers of sewing machines must pay him a royalty of 25 dollars on every machine. So Elias Howe woke one morning to find himself enjoying a large income, which in time rose as high as four thousand dollars a week, and he died in 1867 a rich man. Improvements to the Sewing Machine Though the basic nature of Elias Howes patent was recognized, his sewing machine was only a rough beginning. Improvements followed, one after another, until the sewing machine bore little resemblance to Elias Howes original. John Bachelder introduced the horizontal table upon which to lay the work. Through an opening in the table, tiny spikes in an endless belt projected and pushed the work forward continuously. Allan B. Wilson devised a rotary hook carrying a bobbin to do the work of the shuttle. He also invented the small serrated bar which pops up through the table near the needle, moves forward a tiny space (carrying the cloth with it), drops down just below the upper surface of the table, and returns to its starting point- repeating over and over again this series of motions. This simple device brought its owner a fortune. Isaac Singer, destined to be the dominant figure of the industry, patented in 1851 a machine stronger than any of the others and with several valuable features, notably the vertical presser foot held down by a spring. Singer was the first to adopt the treadle, leaving both hands of the operator free to manage the work. His machine was good, but, rather than its surpassing merits, it was his wonderful business ability that made the name of Singer a household word. Competion Among Sewing Machine Manufacturers By 1856 there were several manufacturers in the field threatening war on each other. All men were paying tribute to Elias Howe, for his patent was basic, and all could join in fighting him. But there were several other devices almost equally fundamental, and even if Howes patents had been declared void, it is probable that his competitors would have fought quite as fiercely among themselves. At the suggestion of George Gifford, a New York attorney, the leading inventors and manufacturers agreed to pool their inventions and to establish a fixed license fee for the use of each. This combination was composed of Elias Howe, Wheeler and Wilson, Grover and Baker, and Isaac Singer, and dominated the field until after 1877, when the majority of the basic patents expired. The members manufactured sewing machines and sold them in America and Europe. Isaac Singer introduced the installment plan of sale, to bring the machine within reach of the poor. The sewing machine agent, with a machine or two on his wagon, drove through every small town and country district, demonstrating and selling. Meanwhile, the price of the machines steadily fell, until it seemed that Isaac Singers slogan, A machine in every home! was in a fair way to be realized, had not another development of the sewing machine intervened.